According to Mohamed Abdel-Kader Khalil, an Egyptian expert on Turkish affairs, “Turkish foreign policy in the Middle East is linked to the use of Turkish military capabilities in the region. This is reflected in Turkey`s military concentrations on the borders with Iraq and Syria and their engagement on the Red Sea through an agreement on the Sudanese island of Sawken and the Turkish military intervention in the northern Syrian city of Afrin. In 1839, Britain invaded China to break opposition to its participation in the country`s economic and political affairs, and one of the main objectives of the British war was the occupation of Hong Kong Island, populated on the coasts of southeastern China. The new British colony (Hong Kong Island) prospered by becoming a trading center between East and West and the commercial gateway and distribution center for southern China, and in 1898, Britain secured another 99 years of rule over Hong Kong under the Second Beijing Convention. Both the government of Constantinople and the government of Ankara were invited by the Allies to participate in the Lausanne conference. Mustafa Kemal was determined that only the Ankara government would be represented at the conference.  On November 1, 1922, the Grand National Assembly declared that the government of the Sultanate of Constantinople was no longer the legal representative. The Grand National Assembly also decided that Constantinople had not been the nation`s capital since its occupation by the Allies.  They also stated that the sultanate should be abolished.  The abolition of the sultanate put an end to the Ottoman Empire.
After hearing about the resolution, Mehmed VI sought refuge on November 17 aboard the British warship Malaya.  The remaining ministers of his government accepted the new political reality. There is no official document declaring the state capitulating to the Ottoman government or the sultan; the system was dissolved on its own. The Lausanne Conference of 11 November 1922 recognized the sovereignty of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, which replaced the Ottoman Empire. The last sultan, Mehmed VI, left Constantinople on November 17, 1922. . . .