Information system designs inherently guide the behavior of their users, and in the fight against the spread of fake news, social media sites have considered turning to “digital nudging.” [85] This can currently be done in two different forms of nudging. These include the promotion of information and the instiling of presentation. The information medium includes social media sites that provide a disclaimer or label that questions or warns users of the validity of the source, while the call for presentation implies that users are exposed to new information that they may not have sought, but that could introduce it with views that may combat their own confirmation distortions. [86] Mahatma Gandhi was Hindu, Rabindranath Tagore too, but as Indians they did not treat the Hindu-Muslim distinction as a matter of any political moment. Tagore decided to introduce himself to Oxford when he held his famous Hibbert Lectures, as someone who came from the confluence of three cultural currents that, in addition to Western influence, united Hinduism and Islam. Indian culture is a combined – and common – product of people of different religious denominations, and this is seen in different cultural fields, from music and literature to painting and architecture. Confirmation Bias, an expression marked by the English psychologist Peter Wason, is the tendency of people to favor information that confirms or reinforces their beliefs or values and is difficult to dismiss once they have been confirmed. Footnote 39 Look at the keywords: prosocial behavior, altruism, validation, measurement variant, Translation into German, prosocial tendency Measurement Distortion of ducism: People tend to say things, whether they like things, say “yes” to things, or agree with things – even if they don`t really feel that way. Imagine this: when your colleague asks if you like her new sweater, you agree with her, don`t you? Research has shown that this trend is also valid for answering survey questions. The persistent influence effect is the tendency to believe in previously learned misinformation, even after their correction. Misinformation can still affect the conclusions you create after correction. [145] The search for authoritarianism in general is sometimes combined with the persecution of a certain part of the nation.

. . .