To contribute to the goals of the agreement, countries presented comprehensive national climate change plans (national fixed contributions, NDC). These are not yet sufficient to meet the agreed temperature targets, but the agreement points to the way forward for further measures. Think tanks such as the World Pensions Council (WPC) argued that the key to success was to convince U.S. and Chinese officials, by far the largest national emitters: “Until policymakers in Washington and Beijing put all their political capital behind the adoption of ambitious targets to reduce carbon emissions , the commendable efforts of other G20 governments have often remained in the field of wishful thinking. On November 12, 2014, when President Obama and Secretary General Xi Jinping agreed to limit greenhouse gas emissions, the situation changed for the better. [20] The conference negotiated the Paris Agreement, a comprehensive agreement on reducing climate change, the text of which was a consensus of the representatives of the 196 parties. [2] The agreement will enter into force if at least 55 countries, which together account for at least 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions, are joined. [3] [5] On April 22, 2016 (Earth Day), 174 countries signed the agreement in New York [6] and began to adopt it in their own legal systems (by ratification, acceptance, approval or membership). Much of the Paris rules were finalized at the last UN climate meeting in Poland, but several topics are still on the table at COP25. On the one hand, many developing countries want stricter provisions for losses and damage caused by climate change.

The idea is that it is not only a question of reducing the future effects of climate change, but also of taking responsibility for past and present damage. Rising sea levels, extreme heat and worsening disasters are already wreaking havoc in some of the world`s poorest regions. Many climate changes are also cooked and inevitable. That is why more prosperous countries should finance these consequences in poor countries, rather than simply funding projects that reduce emissions and use clean energy. China, the world`s largest emitter, is facing ongoing protests in Hong Kong. And the United States, the world`s second-largest emitter of greenhouse gases, fully adheres to the Paris agreement. According to the organizing committee at the beginning of the discussions[7], the key outcome expected was an agreement to limit global warming to “well below 2 degrees Celsius” above pre-industrial levels. The agreement requires that there be no anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in the second half of the 21st century. In the adopted version of the Paris Agreement[3], the parties will also make “efforts” to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius. [2] According to some scientists, the 1.5-C target will require zero emissions between 2030 and 2050.

[2] The 25th session of the Conference of the Parties, including