Several factors can cause problems in the context of a collusive agreement between suppliers: to analyze the elements of the two approaches, they are discussed in the light of the model of explanation provided in Section 2: the organization of agreements, reactions to fraud and conflict and the outcome of those responses. The Gsubramaniam leader served as a contact between star and betting players and placed bets that earned more than 1.17 million pounds. This fact proves that even in second-tier leagues, the turnover of bets can be significant. The ability of individuals to work together in groups and organizations has also been defined as social capital by a group of influential scientists in the field of sociology (Coleman, 1988). Fukuyama 1995; Putnam 1995). Fukuyama (1997: 378-9) says: “Social capital can simply be defined as the existence of a number of values or informal norms shared between members of a group who collaborate with each other (…) standards (…) allow virtues such as the narrative of truth, respect for obligations and reciprocity.” Putnam (2000; 19) also highlights the importance of the standards of reciprocity and reliability that flow from social networks. The question of how companies manage to stabilize cartels has received only limited attention in the criminological literature. There are some criminological criminal studies on antitrust practices, such as Geis` groundbreaking 1987 study of price agreements in the heavy electrical appliance industry. These studies explain the behaviour of cartels by the need to manage and avoid uncertainties, to make results more predictable and to minimize risks (Agnew et al. 2009; Paternoster and Simpson, 1996; Jamieson 1994; Geis 1987; Sonnenfeld and Lawrence 1978). However, these studies do not have a longitudinal perspective for cartels.
As studies take a longitudinal approach to economic crime, they focus on the individual pathway and not on the antaïd (Piquero and Weisburd 2009; Piquero 2012; Weisburd and Waring 2001). Agreement, association of independent companies or individuals for the purpose of exercising a form of restrictive or monopolistic influence on the production or sale of a commodity. The most common rules are to regulate or distribute the markets for prices or production. Members of an agreement maintain their identity and financial independence while pursuing common policies.